Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) was the first important Muslim leader to advocate the partition of India to create separate Muslim state. Because of his foresight, Allama Iqbal is described as the Architect of Pakistan. Giving his presidential address to the Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930,he called for a separate Muslim state in North-West India. This latter called Allahabad Address 1930.(https://eastwestknowledge.com/indo-pak-history-mcqs/)
His proposal was not based on any hostility towards Hindus, but simply on the needs of Muslims to preserve and protect their own faith and culture. He did not suggest a name for this new state. Because the idea came from such a distinguish leader, separatism was seriously considered by many Muslims during the 1930s. Even so, few people at the time realized that the Iqbal’s vision would result in an independent nation of Pakistan. It was to take ten years before a separate state became the policy of the Muslim League. At the time he made his Allahabad Address 1930, Iqbal was a highly respected figure. He had many accomplishment: degree in philosophy from the University of the Punjab and Cambridge, and a doctors from the University of Munich.
In London, he studied law and qualified as a barrister. He was also an Established poet, writing in Urdu and Persian, and in 1922,he was knighted by the British in recognition of his poetry. During his time in Europe, Iqbal saw much that impressed him. However he disliked the ruthless competition, man against man and nation against nation, which existed under capitalist system. It contradicted his Muslim belief in universal brotherhood. He was completely opposed to the British control of India.
Allama Iqbal Allahabad Address-1930.
When in December 1930 most of the Indian leaders were busy in Round Table Conference in London to discuss future course of Action, Muslim League convened its meeting at Allahabad. Allama Iqbal presided over the annual session. His presidential address carries great importance in political history of subcontinent. He highlighted the two nation theory and argued that subcontinent was a homeland of two nations and Muslims are a separate nation. Islam is a complete code of life which offers guidance for socio-political and cultural issues. If Hindus were demanding independence from British ,Muslims were also justified in getting separated from Hindus to preserve their distinct existence. Under the circumstances, the only possible solution for constitutional problems of India would be separate majority areas of Muslims into a homeland. While underlining the central idea of his speech. Allama Iqbal said” I wish that Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan may be integrated into single political entity. Whether it is autonomous within British rule or without it. Allahabad Address 1930 had great importance in the Muslim freedom struggle of subcontinent. Words of Allahabad Address 1930:
“India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races,speaking different languages and professing different religions.This behavior is not at all determined by a common race-consciousness.Even European democracy can not be applied to India without recognizing the fact of communal groups.The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is, therefore perfectly justified.I would like to see the Punjab,North-West Frontier Province,Sindh and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state.Self government within the British Empire,the formation of a consolidated North-Western Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims at least North-west India“.
This address served as tower of light to the Muslims and enabled them to identify their destination without which their problems could never be solved.The failure of Simon commission and criticism of Muslims League on Nehru report created hurdles for constitutional reforms.therefore British government arranged Round Table conference from 1930 to 1932 for having dialogue with the Indian Leaders but nothing came out of these conferences.
- This Lecture was made and research by Muhammad Fawad Khan.
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