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CORRUPTION is usually defined as ” to abuse public power for personal gains”. The issue of corruption is historical, worldwide, and complex. From a macroscopic view, corruption is a phenomena of human society; viewed from a microscopic view it is a form of human behaviour. Corruption is secretive, but it is still detectable as it could not possibly be hidden from everyone
It has three key points in it, first, the main party involved is an official who holds and exercises public powers; second, the underlying purpose is to acquire personal gains and interests; and third the precondition for the acquisition of personal interests is the abuse of public power or damage to public interests.
Corruption is a conduct in which a person harms others to benefit himself or herself, and injures public interest to enrich his or her private interests. It both causes damage to public interests and violates public ethics.(https://eastwestknowledge.com/early-problems-of-pakistan/)
DEFINITION OF CORRUPTION.
Corruption is usually defined as ” to abuse public power for personal gains”. Transparency International, an international anti-corruption non-governmental organization adjusted the definition of corruption in 2000. “To abuse entrusted power to acquire private interests.”
In their definition of corruption, entrusted power is used to replace the “Public Power” so that the main party of corruption is extended to cover both governmental officials to all employees. The essence of corruption testifies the two above definitions are consistent, i.e. “seeking personal gains with power”
Based on the anti-corruption practice of various countries, bribery is generally listed as corruption, and is a crime prosecuted by law. The situation is incredibly complicated even when only bribery is considered.
The United Nations Convention against against corruption, for example, he has given at least four different definitions of the crime.
Among these, the definition given in Article 15 on Bribery of National Public officials is such: The promise, offering, or giving, to a public official, directly or indirectly, of an undue advantage, for the official himself or herself or another person or entity, so that the official refrains from acting in compliance with his or her official duties is called bribe.
RANGE OF CORRUPTION
People living in the present world have long found that those who engage in corruption are not limited to government officials. Corruption can occur within an extensive range of fields, such as politics, economy and society, and among different groups of people.
Such as business people, lawyers , football referees, teachers, doctors, and accountants and engineers. For example a couple of employees of Rio Tinto, a large Australian transnational company, took bribes from a number of small iron and enterprises in China. Some football referees in China also accepted advances from football clubs, and abused their power by engaging in fraudulent conduct during matches.
UNDERSTAND THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA
Foreigners generally do not understand the Communist Party of china-the CPC, the party. Particularly its historic transformation from a “revolutionary party” seeking power to a ruling party. The Communist Party of China has ruled China since 1949; it has more than 85 million members.
President Xi Jinping, general Secretary of the Communist Party of China central Committee, asserts that for China to achieve its national goals of building a moderately prosperous society by 2020 and a fully modernized nation by 2050 the Chinese dream.
Party must rule the Party and the country properly, with strict discipline, dedication and competence. The supreme criterion for all party conducts, Xi says, “is that serves the interest of the great majority of the people.”
PRESIDENT XI’S FOUR COMPREHENSIVES
President Xi’s Four “Comprehensives,” his overarching political theory, elevates
- “Strictly governing the Party” to the highest rank
- Building a moderately prosperous society
- Deepening reform
- Governing according to law.
But each of the Four Comprehensives has its own nature: “moderately prosperous society” is a goal; Deeping reform is a means; governing according to law is a principle; and “strictly governing the Party” is an action of state of affairs. China’s massive and sudden generation of wealth, the goal is to create a Party system where officials have three attitudes towards corruption: Do not want. Do not do. Do not dare.
EIGHT DIMENSIONAL FRAMEWORK
For “Understanding the CPC,” here’s an eight dimensional framework for assessing and analyzing the Communist Party of China
- Ideology and its developments.
- History and its vicissitudes.
- Leadership and elite politics.
- Structure and organization.
- Personal Selection and training.
- Strict discipline, corruption, and anti-corruption campaigns.
- Contemporary challenges.
- Future prospects