FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN

FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN. [INDO-PAK].

The foreign policy of Pakistan is to establish and develop relations with other countries to watch the national interests by taking appropriate steps at international level. QUAID-E-AZAM ABOUT FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN : Our foreign policy is one of the friendliness and goodwill towards all the nations of the world. [Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah].(https://eastwestknowledge.com/national-integration/)

IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT FOREIGN POLICY.

  • National interests do not change but policies are changed to achieve it.[Dr-Zbigniew].
  • No state can live in isolation or stay totally indifferent to what is happening in the international system.
  • The developments outside the boundaries of a state have implications for its domestic affairs and the goals it pursues all the National and international level.
  • National interests stem from the historical and ideological perspective and the major economic and geopolitical considerations.
  • Survival and security are the major objectives of foreign policy. These are coupled with securing material welfare and prosperity for the people.
  • Established norms of international conducts such as the charter of the united Nations which underlines [1] peace, [2] Justice [3] equality [4] Tolerance [5] Fundamental Human Rights.
  • The Foreign policy of a country, however, can not be static.
  • There can be no eternal friends nor can there be eternal enemies in International relations only eternal factor is the national interests. [Lord Palmerstone.].
  • Foreign Policy changes according to circumstances and conditions.
  • The principle objective of Pak Foreign policy have been security and economic development. Security is related to the defense of the country and the preservation of the ideology.
  • Survival can not be ensured with out economic development.
  • The present day world is under the sway of big powers. Every big power is keen to secure spheres of influence in different parts of the world. These powers are always busy in protecting and advancing their interests in the international system through political and economic diplomacy and , if needed the use or threat of use of force.
  • Their policies of war and peace have a strong impact on the political development in the international system. This effects on the smaller states on the National interests.
  • Geopolitical factors have been a unique geography upto 1971.Pakistan as a whole is wedged in between three big neighbours, namely Russia, China and India. There is no other country in the world which has a geographical situation akin to Pakistan.

COMMON NATIONAL INTEREST.

  • Economic Prosperity.
  • Protection of Ideology.
  • security of Nation and State.

PRINCIPLES OF FOREIGN POLICY.

This is based on the following basic principles.

PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE. Pakistan believes in peaceful co-existence and respects the liberty, freedom and sovereignty of other countries, and expect the same from others. Pakistan is always disinterested in the internal affairs of others, and opposes imperialisms and aggression of every type.

NON-ALIGNMENT. Pakistan has adopted the policy of non-alignment by making changes in its foreign policy. Pakistan has not shown alignment with any block, and has established good relationship with all the countries. Therefore, now Pakistan is trying to establish good relationship with Russia, United States of America, People Republics of China, United Kingdom, France and other countries and excepts the same from others of significant importance. At present Pakistan is also a regular member of Non-aligned Movement (NAM).

BILATERALISM. Pakistan wants to develop its relations with all countries on the basis of bilateralism. Therefore, Pakistan has invited India many times to solve the Kashmir dispute by negotiation.

UNITED NATIONS CHARTER. Pakistan is a member of United Nations and follows its charter strictly. Therefore Pakistan has supported every action of the United Nations and provided military assistance to implement its decisions.

SUPPORT TO RIGHT SELF-DETERMINATION. Pakistan supports the right of self-determination of all the suppressed nations. Pakistan believes that every nation must have the right of self determination. Therefore, Pakistan has supported the demand of abolishing the colonialism and every movement for the exercise of the right of self-determination in Europe, Africa and Asia. Pakistan has played very important role in the struggle of independence of Kashmir, Palestine, Bosnia, Namibia and Vietnam. It has also opposed the occupation of Afghanistan by Russia and helped the Afghanis to get the liberation from foreign rule.

UNITY OF ISLAMIC WORLD. Pakistan is the supporter of the unity of Islamic world, and is following the policy to establish good relation with Muslims countries. Pakistan has always tried to solve the conflicts of Islamic World and played very important role in Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait’s occupation by Iraq, Palestine’s liberation, and Afghanistan’s liberation. Pakistan is an active member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Pakistan has provided a platform for Muslim countries of Central Asia to solve their economic problems by establishing Economic cooperation Organization.

DE-WEAPONIZATION. Pakistan is the main supporter of de-weaponization and supported all international efforts to de-weaponise the world. Therefore, Pakistan is not in the race of weaponization. Pakistan uses atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Pakistan tries to avoid the danger of nuclear war in the world. Pakistan has repeatedly suggested for the de-weaponisation of South Asia, but India has not responded it accordingly.

ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION. Pakistan wants to eliminate the racial discrimination throughout the world. Pakistan has protested over racial discrimination in South Africa, Namibia nd Rhodesia. There is no racial discrimination in Pakistan and all the minorities in Pakistan have equal rights.

ESTABLISHMENT OF PEACE. Pakistan wants establishment of peace throughout the world. Pakistan has also protested against aggressive powers, desires, and supported the oppressed nations for getting the peace. Pakistan has repeatedly invited India to negotiate peace in South Asia but it has rejected every move.

GOOD RELATIONS WITH NEIGHBOUR. Pakistan wants good relationship with all neighbours including India. Pakistan also wants to solve all the issues with neighbouring countries including Kashmir issue with India peacefully. Therefore, Pakistan has invited India for talks at any time, at every level and at every place.

INTERNATIONAL & REGIONAL COOPERATION. Pakistan is an active member of International and regional organizations i.e. United Nations, Non-aligned Movement (NAM), Organization of Islamic cooperation (OIC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and SAARC. Pakistan always cooperates with all these organizations for the security of World Peace.

OBJECTIVES OF FOREIGN POLICY.

Pakistan emerged on the map of the world on 14 August 1947 and it inherited the foreign policy from British India. After independence, Pakistan made some changes in British policy according to the ideology and the objectives of Pakistan Movement. The main objectives of the foreign policy of Pakistan are as under :

NATIONAL SECURITY.

The main objectives of foreign policy of Pakistan is its national security or independence. Pakistan was a new born state , and there was a need to make to arrangements for its security. So Pakistan formulated its foreign on the basis of national security. It gave due importance to the national security, while establishing external relationship with other countries. Pakistan respects the national integrity and the political independence of other countries, and expect from others the same.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.

Pakistan is a developing country and inspires for its economic development. It needs to establish and maintain cordial relations with those states with whom it can maximize its trade relations or from whom it can obtain maximum economic benefits. Pakistan has made changes in its foreign policy keeping in view the new economic trends. It has adopted particularly free trade, free economic policy, and policy of privatization.

IDEOLOGY.

Pakistan is an ideological state and its foreign policy is based upon the ideology of Pakistan or Islam. The foreign policy is meant to protect the ideology. The stability of Pakistan is also dependent upon the ideology. Pakistan can protect its ideology by developing good relationship with Muslim countries.All the constitutions of Pakistan emphasized on establishing good relations with Muslim countries. Pakistan has also played an important role in the establishment of OIC and ECO.

DETERMINANTS OF THE FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN.

The following are the determinants .

ADMINISTRATIVE TROIKA.

Administrative Troika comprises the President of Pakistan, the Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff. It plays very important role in formulating foreign policy. It can approve or disapprove the foreign policy of Pakistan or can make any change in it. However, it is very difficult to deviate from the previous foreign commitments made by Troika.

MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

The ministry can play very important role in formulating the foreign policy. It compromises the specialists and experts of foreign policy and the bureaucrats of high level. They formulate the policy, plans and programmes regarding the priorities of foreign policy, and fully cooperate with Troika for its preparation. It accordance with new constitutional amendment, the Troika has been replaced by the National Security council.

INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES.

Pakistan’s intelligence agencies also play very effective role in the formulation of foreign policy by providing full information about the objectives of other countries’ foreign policy. Keeping in view these information’s, Pakistan formulates its foreign policy.

POLITICAL PARTIES AND PRESSURE GROUP.

The political parties and pressure groups have deep impacts on the formulation of foreign policy. The political parties include the priorities of foreign policy in their manifesto, and after their success in the election, they force the government to change the priorities of foreign policy according to the changing scenario in the light of their view points. Likewise pressure groups can also influence the foreign policy.

PARLIAMENT.

The ministry of Foreign Affairs usually prepares the foreign policy according to the directions of executive and puts it before the Parliament for approval. After discussion and debate the Parliament gives approval to it or suggests some changes in it.

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