The idea of good governance is not new but as old as human history. Simply put governance means, process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implemented ( not implemented). It is used in many contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national and local governance. Government is one of the key actors in the governance. Other actors which are involved in governance vary and depend on the level of the government.


In rural areas for instance, influential land lords, association of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGO, research institution, religious leaders, finance institution, political parties and military etc. In urban areas situation is complicated. At the Nation level, in addition to the above actors, media, lobbyists, international donors, multinational corporations play a role in decision making and implementation of decision. Actors other than government and military formed civil society. In some countries organized crime syndicates influence in decision making, especially in urban areas and at the national level.

Attributes of good governance.

There are following major eight attributes.

[1] Participation. Involvement of both men and women in decision making play vital role in good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representative. Participation needs to be well informed and organized. This means freedom of association.

[2] Rule of Law. Good governance demands fair legal framework that is implemented impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights. Impartial enforcement of law demands on an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.

what is rule of law
[3] Transparency means that decisions taken and their implementations are done in a manner that follows rule and regulations. Information is freely and easily accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions.

[4] Responsiveness: It demands that all institutions try to serve all stake holders within a describe time frame.

[5] Consensus Oriented: It demands mediation of the various interests in society to reach a broader consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole society. Its achievement is long term and need historical, cultural and social context of a given society.

[6] Concept of Equality : Society progress depends on this commitment that all its members feel that they have stake in it and don’t feel out from mainstream of society.It includes all groups but particularly the most vulnerable.

[7] Efficiency: The concept of efficiency regarding good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the society.

[8] Accountability. This is key factor in good governance. Government and private institutions must be accountable to the public and their institutional stake holders. Accountability can not be enforced without transparency and the rule of law.


Conclusion. From the above discussion, it is clear good governance is ideal and difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieve its totality.



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