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Indian ocean covers nearly 1/5 of the world total ocean area. It is bounded by Arabian Peninsula , Africa, Bay of Bengal near Myanmar, India’s coastal water and Indonesia. Indian ocean provides important sea routes that connect Middle East, Africa, south Asia, with the broader Asian continent to the East and Europe to the West. Most crucial world choke points are, strait of Hormuz and Malacca, through which 32.3 million barrels crude oil passes per day. More than 45 percent of world maritime oil trade are found in the Indian ocean. Big source of exports are fisheries and other minerals.(https://eastwestknowledge.com/pakistan-and-the-united-nations-lec-1/)
COMPETITION IN OCEAN
- Both India and China are dependent on energy resources which transported via sea routes in the Indian ocean to fuel their economy.
- India uses 80 percent imported energy.
- Most of the oil comes from Middle East.
- India wanted to overtake Japan and China economy.
- According to the U.S Department of State, china imports 84 percent of its energy via strait of Malacca from the Indian ocean.
- India and China want safe and sound transport route.
- China’s global influence is growing and U.S.A want re balance of Asia.
- On the other hand India’s economy is also rapidly rising.
- America is shifting its foreign policy from Middle East to centered on Asia.
COMPETITION B/W CHINA & INDIA
- Both China and India are surging their relations with smaller states to secure security and economic interest.
- China’s regional vision backed by more than 200 billion dollars of pledged investment, following are
- One Belt one Road.
- Growing ties with regional states, Bangladesh, Pakistan,Sri-Lanka and Myanmar.
- China is increasing its Naval, to secure and protect its personnel,property and investment.
DEVELOPMENT OF PORT.
India’s Foreign secretary Shyam wrote down: India can become regional and global power if India key hold the neighborhood.Without India’s control on neighbors, India can not become regional and global power.
TENSION B/W CHINA & INDIA
- Long standing dispute along 2400 mile border in India’s Arunachal pardesh, China’s Tibet region and 1962 war.
- Both countries are surging their military in the Indian ocean.China is deploying larger number of Naval forces to support counter piracy and operations in the western ocean.China sold eight submarine to Pakistan in 2015.U.S Naval war college Andrew and Kevin bond said,”China’s this activity bleed the region“.
India’s Activities in the region.
- India is also doing the same.India is spending billions on its Navy: Anti-submarine to monitor the south china sea.India called it freedom of Navigation.
- India-Australia exercise.
- Multilateral Naval games in the Bay of the Bengal with U.SA-Japan and Australia.
STRATEGIC INTEREST IN IOR
Small regional states like Bangladesh, Maldives, Myanmar,Seychelles and Sri-Lanka, China increasing their investment in these countries to protect its interest.On the other hand, global powers from outside, America, France, Australia and England want balance of power in the region.America is operating Naval support in the Diego Garcia. Australia has a modern Naval force in the region.
Regional and outside powers want cooperation.
- Counter-piracy.Somalian pirates are considered big robbers.They looted wealth in 2014 was 2.3 billion dollars.By international efforts it was reduced from 5.7 to 6.1 billion dollars.Strives near Gulf of Aden remained very successful.
- Searching. Malaysian Airline plane-370 vanished from Kuala-Lumpur to Beijing in 2014.It was founded by 26 countries in 2015.
- Disaster.In 2004 Tsunami disaster came, with the collective efforts of countries provided relief to related countries.American Naval fleet Abraham Lincon with 1000 bed hospital took part in this activity.
- Fisheries.People obtain 20 to 50 percent protein from fish from Indo-Pacific.
ISSUES FOR U.S CONGRESS
American administration has kick off the rising importance of the indo-pacific region to American security and economic strategy.In 2017, U.S president Donald Trump said,” A geopolitical competition between free and repressive vision of world order is taking place in the Indo-Pacific region”.China is developing infrastructure projects and presence in Pakistan, Sri-Lanka, Burma and Djibouti. It forced American administration to change its strategy. America is investing more on its Naval, Air Force and marine, rhyme is, U.S.A wanted to maintain its strategic and diplomatic relationship with regional friend and allies to protect core interest of America.U.S.A is also providing foreign assistance to its allies and friends.
GRAND STRATEGIS OF USA.
- Same minded democracies like India, Japan, Australia are working together to balance the power in the region.
- Australian National security Strategist Medcalf wrote in 2013,”The term Indo-Pacific deepened connections between the Indian ocean and western Pacific”.
- China Presence is growing in the Indian ocean in the shape of military base in Djibouti and intensified ties with Sri-Lanka and Maldives.
- In 2017, U.S National security asked, “Indo-Pacific is a top level regional priority”.
- To Protect U.S National interest and balance of power in the region, it is necessary to enter India in it.
- Former U.S secretary of state Rx Tillerson visited India and asked,” U.S.A will provide alternate to China Belt and Road initiative.
Defense Department combatant Command.
U.S pacific command covers, The Asia Pacific, South East Asia,South Asian countries like Bangladesh,India, Maldives and Nepal.It does not cover Pakistan and Afghanistan.Pakistan and Afghanistan both are part of Central command.
INDIAN DEMAND FROM USA
India urged coordination on the Eastern portion of the region,southeast and northeast Asia but also its west (pak-Afghan).The Gulf and Eastern coast of Africa.
- U.S.A is providing economic framework to India. U.S.A investment is increasing day by day in India. KSA invested 70 billion dollars in India under U.S.
- Regional countries investment.
- Strategy with India, Japan, Australia not implemented yet[Rx-Tillerson].
- Japan is helping India in the shape of jobs, agriculture, health and disaster management.
- China economic growth depend on seaborne trade and imported energy. Major portion of transit is Indian ocean. Regional states that link to Indian ocean.
- Strait of Malacca, this is important choke point through major portion of china trade and energy flows.
- South China sea, East China sea and India are big issues for china.
- This lecture is helpful to CURRENT AFFAIRS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS and PAKISTAN-AFFAIRS.
- This lecture was made and research by Muhammad Fawad Khan.
- website is eastwestknowledge.com.
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- Source of Data: From different articles of CFR, New York time and view point of experts.