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Sabukitigin Son’s Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi inherited the throne at his father death in 997.A.D. Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi named himself “Sultan”. This is Turkish word for ruler. Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi needed vast amount of money to protect his central Asian empire. This was very profitable because the trade route from china to west ran through it. Whoever controlled these roads, could tax the merchants. The capital was most beautiful in the world after Baghdad. He was brave and courageous king. He ruled and spent thirty three years in war expeditions. He attained special skills in state affairs and military.
The Ghaznavid Empire was founded by a Turkish leader called Subuktigin [976-997]. The Ghaznavids were a Turkish speaking Muslims tribe that came from Central Asia. They had been slave and soldiers of Caliph in Baghdad. Later, they had become so powerful that they able to seize an empire for themselves in Central Asia and Persia. They made their capital at Ghazni near Kandahar. Sabuktigin invaded Northern India and defeated the Hindu Raja who ruled the Punjab and part of Afghanistan. The Indus river was eastern frontier of its empire.
MILITARY STRATEGY OF SULTAN .
- Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi armies were fast, lightly armed horsemen.
- Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi found out that , it is easy to defeat the slow clumsy war elephant of the Indians.
- He made lightening raids. He captured Kanuj, Mathura and other cities.
- Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi main weapon was swift cavalry.
- Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi used captured elephants against enemies in Central Asia, who had never faced such enemies in the battle.
- Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi employed some Indian troops and Hindu commanders because Turkish senior officials getting power day by day and tried to overthrown him.
- The attacks were made in the dry season, so that his armies heavily laden with spoils of war, could get back to Ghazni before the monsoon season starts.
Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi believed that idols, statues worshiped by non-Muslims should be destroyed. Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi led a Jihad against the temples of Hindus and religions such as Sun-worship. Somanth was famous temple of Hindus. It was their believed that no one can harm it. Mehmood Gaznavi came to know, he attacked and conquer it. This temple had countless treasures. various Raja of Northern India tried to protect it with heavy force but could not succeed. Hindus offered huge wealth., it was rejected by Sultan and said” I am the idol breaker not seller of gods”.
BATTLE OF PESHAWAR
In November 1001, Mahmud fought with Raja Jaipal. The ruler of Peshawar at that time and 15000 men were killed in the battle. Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi offered to release Jaipal in return of 50 elephants. Raja son’s Anadpal also fought against Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi. He was also defeated. The war carried on 42 days. So after it, Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi conquered lot of Punjab.
CONTRIBUTION TO SUBCONTIENT.
- He imposed special tax called Jizya instead of doing military service.
- Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi allowed Hindus, Christian and Jews to practice their own religion.
- Freedom of religion.
- He allowed many Hindus officials to remain in office.
DEVELOPMENT in EDUCATION & ART.
- Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi was lover of education and art.
- Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi worked for the promotion of Persian language.
- Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi established many schools in Ghazni.
- Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi had more than four hundred poets and men of letters in his court, among them Firdausi, Bou Ali Senna and people like Al-Beuruni.
- Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi had splendid library in Ghazni. He made buildings and beautiful mosques.
- Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi granted scholarship to teachers and students.
- Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi also appointed Qazis for justice in every village and town.
- Sultan Mehmood Gaznavi also watched the scales of weight and measurements.
- Arabic was only a religious language.
- Al-Beuruni wrote Book “Kitab-ul-Hind” ( ways of life as well as the customs of the people of India).
The Ghaznavids introduced such as paper tea, fine porcelain and gunpowder to India etc.
DIED MAHMUD GAZNAVI
. Sultan Mahmud Gaznavi died in 1030.
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- This lecture was made and research by Muhammad Fawad Khan.
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