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Pakistan and Iran relations remained good since independence consistently. Pakistan came into being in 1947, Iran immediately accepted Pakistan. Iran has always promoted Pakistan’s interests to the world community. Defence and trade are important reasons for the two countries.(https://eastwestknowledge.com/pakistan-russia-relations/)National Interest don’t change but Policies are changed to achieve it.DR-Zbiginiew.
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BORDER ISSUES WITH IRAN
There are strong links between the People of Pakistan and the IRAN. Not only they are neighbours, but the Urdu language also shares much with Persian. The border, stretching 590 miles between the two countries, was fixed by the British government over 100 years ago. An early dispute between IRAN and Pakistan, over ownership of Qila Sufaid, led to violence. Fortunately, this kind of issue and others solved amicably. Border agreement between Pakistan and Iran finally reached in 1960. IRAN gave up miles 95 miles of territory to Pakistan and in return the town of Zahidan was given to IRAN. This was also great step to strong Pakistan and Iran relations.
COMMON INTEREST LINKED
There are following common interests between both countries which make Pakistan and Iran relations better and strong.
[A] The Baghdad Pact.
The Baghdad pact was set up in February 1955 by Turkey and IRAQ. This pact was designed to stop soviet expansion in the Middle East. The United Kingdom joined in April, Pakistan joined in September and IRAN in November. All members except UK were Muslim. In 1959 Iraq quit. The pact was renamed the Central Asia Treaty Organization [CENTO]. USA did not join this treaty but promoted it to protect its own national interest. Pakistan was highly disappointed that CENTO did not have its own military command capable of mobilizing troops to protect a member against attack. CENTO did not gave protection against India to Pakistan. CENTO was disbanded in 1979 with the overthrown of the Shah of Iran’s government.
[B] REGIONAL COOPERATION FOR DEVELOPMENT.
On 21 July 1964 at Islamabad, on President Ayub Khan’s suggestion, Pakistan joined with IRAN and Turkey to set up the Regional cooperation for Development. Ayub Khan saw it as a supplement to CENTO. The fundamental purpose was to strengthen economic, technical, educational and cultural links between the three Muslim Countries. It was hoped that trade would improve. However, it was in education and cultural areas that the RCD was most successful. By 1979 the RCD had really come to an end, but in 1985 General Zia revived it. In 1990 this organization was renamed the Economic Cooperation Organization and, apart from the founder countries the newly independent Central Asian states were also inducted as member countries. Ayub Khan was keen to draw Afghanistan into the RCD, but could not persuade the Afghans to join.
[c]PUT DOWN UPRISING IN BALOUCHISTAN
At the time of the 1965 war with India, Iran was quick to defend Pakistan and even offered some military assistance. Again in 1973 IRAN helped Pakistan tackle the Baloch insurgency. But the Shah of IRAN depended very much on the support and goodwill of the USA. When the USA applied pressure pressure, Iran dropped its offer of practical help.
Revolution in IRAN
In January 1979 the Shah of IRAN was overthrown and replaced by a strongly Anti-American government led by Ayatollah Khomeini. Pakistan was one of the first countries to officially recognize the new government, but Khomeini was suspicious of Pakistan because of its previous close relationship with the Shah. IRAN was also critical of Pakistan for accepting large amounts of aid from the USA. During the Iran-Iraq, 1980-88, it was difficult to achieve any close relationship. 1979 Revolution, deteriorate Pakistan and Iran relations.
RELATIONS AFTER REVOLUTION OF 1979.
Pakistan and Iran relations were going to remain tricky. Trade has been limited mainly to oil exports from IRAN to Pakistan. The difficulties of the 1980s were to be followed by quarrels over the political situation in Afghanistan. Pakistan and Iran relations worsened in the 1990s when Pakistan showed support for the Sunni Taliban in Afghanistan. The emergence of Pakistan as a nuclear power also worried to Iran. Iran has often had quite close relations with India. Following the removal of the Taliban n 2001, Iran suspected Pakistan of cooperating with the USA .Pakistan has made it clear that it remains neutral in any argument between the USA and IRAN.
- This Lecture was made and Research by Muhammad Fawad Khan.
- This Lecture is helpful to PAK-AFFAIRS ,C/AFFAIRS & INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.
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