pakistan india relations


  • Pakistan and India during the quest for independence from the Great Britain, a feeling of hostility and antagonism had produced between the Muslim League and the Indian National congress.
  • Pakistan was divided against the wishes of Indian National Congress.
  • In the wake of division there had been many deaths as a result of communal violence after partition was announced.
  • From day of first Pakistan was feeling threat from its larger neighbor INDIA.
  • Therefore, Pakistan relations with INDIA have been remained at the forefront of Pakistan foreign policy.

Shared Problems between Pakistan and India.

  • After partition in 1947 both countries Pakistan and India faced number of shared problems.
  • These were : [1] Large number of refugees wanted to move from one country to the other.
  • [2] The second problem was joint resources share.
  • The third major problem was disagreement over possession of Kashmir.

Refugees problem b/w PAKISTAN & INDIA.

  • This is considered world largest migration.
  • In 1947 large number of Muslims moved from India to Pakistan and Hindus to India.
  • There were substantial religious minorities in each country.
  • There was big hostility between the two religious communities, it was being thought that bloody scenes might create.
  • Pakistan first prime minister Liaqat Ali Khan signed an agreement in April 1950 with Nehru of India.
  • This was called the “Minorities pact”.
  • Leaders of both countries agreed upon that each country would provide protection and religious freedom for the religious minorities.
  • This was good move to encourage the minorities to remain where they were and stop the refugees.
  • This agreement slow downed the migration but it could not wholly stop the migration.
  • People did not trust on Government promises and feel that it was possible for statements from the Central governments to change the felling of hostility at local level.
  • Minorities were feeling that they would not have the same opportunities and guarantees as the majority.

Resources Issue b/w INDIA PAKISTAN.

  • The India halt the resources of Pakistan.
  • This activity disturb the relations between India and Pakistan the countries.
  • The reluctance of India to release assets made the Pakistan even more suspicious of India motives and soured relation for the future.
  • For instance, water which was one of the vital resources that India and Pakistan shared.
  • On 1st April 1948, India cut off water supplies from all the headworks that it controlled.
  • Farmers in Pakistan were using traditionally irrigated the lands by canals running off the main rivers.
  • This move by India reduced the water of Pakistan and it severely affected Pakistan agriculture.
  • Proper access to water was to remain a problem until 1959.
  • Indus waster treaty was signed between Pakistan and India in 1960 for ten year water supply under World Bank guarantee.

Kashmir Issue/conflict.

  • The issue of Kashmir was from day first which was created by India.
  • Both countries fought first war in 1948 over Kashmir issue.
  • Pakistan was angered that India had gained the largest area of Kashmir even the Capital, Srinagar and wanted to take control over the whole Kashmir.
  • Majority of Kashmir were Muslims and Pakistan believed the territory exactly belonged to her.
  • Since 1949 there was an agreed truce line through Kashmir which was controlled by troops from the UN.
  • Negotiations continued through the 1950s, but little progress was made.
  • India did endeavor to integrate Indian-Occupied Kashmir into India in 1954 and 1955.
  • Pakistan recorded the protest to the United Nations and appealed to the UN Security Council.
  • In 1957 UN Security council issued a declaration and reiterate that the whole Kashmir was a disputed territory.
  • A plebiscite should be supervised by the Un.
  • To date, no plebiscite could take place and the area has remained a constant source of tension.


  • The issue of Kashmir remained unsolved and this developed the lack of trust between both the countries.
  • India was highly concerned about the military aid to Pakistan by the United States of America.
  • Indians were worried that Pakistan would use the aid against India.
  • United states of America assured them that the support to Pakistan was part of the campaign to the containment of Communism.
  • India felt insecurity and signed a friendship agreement with china in 1954.
  • Moreover, People Republic of China and India fought a war over the position of the border.
  • China took control over the land which claimed before declaring of ceasefire.
  • After this, India started the new race for arms struggle in the region which grew more tension for Pakistan.
  • Pakistan and India fought war in 1965 over Kashmir issue.
  • This was second war.


  • In 1965 Pakistan forced the Indians to accepts an Independent tribunal to settle a border dispute over the Rann of Kutch on the Sindh/Rajasthan border.
  • Pakistan now decided to take steps to force India to agree to the setting up of an International body to decide on ownership of Kashmir.
  • The Pakistan strategy was to encourage an uprising in Indian-controlled Kashmir and to send forces in to support the uprising.
  • In August 1965 armed guerrillas were infiltrated into Indian occupied Kashmir, with orders to contact rebels and begin local uprising.
  • To the surprise of the Pakistanis’ however, there was only limited local local support for an uprising and the ventured looked like ending in failure.
  • Consequently, on 1 September 1965,the Pakistan army attacked Indian controlled Kashmir, hoping to cut off the only road from Kashmir into India.
  • On 6 September, Indian troops retaliated by attacking across the border, near Lahore.
  • This had not been anticipated by the Pakistanis and the area was largely undefended.
  • Only a heroic defence by the few troops in and near Lahore prevented it from being captured by Indian troops.
  • Although war was not still officially declared, the Indian launched another major offensive in the Sialkot sector but it was pushed back.
  • A full fledged war broke out between the two countries.
  • After three weeks of fighting both sides agreed to a truce(ceasefire).
  • In January 1966, the Soviet Union arranged a cease-fire conference in the Tashkent, in the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan.
  • The agreement at the end of the conference produced a cease-fire and a general agreement to sort out” all disputes” peacefully.
  • Pakistan ambition of driving India to accepts International arbitration over Kashmir had failed.
  • One reason for this was, India was stronger and more determined than Pakistan realised. Another Major reason was, during war the USA and UK had both placed an embargo on selling weapons to the two combatants Pakistan was dependent on the West for military equipment.
  • It hit harder Pakistan than India. As a result Pakistan had been forced to rely in diplomatic intervention by China, which threatened to step in to oppose India if it seemed Pakistan Integrity came under threat.


  • By 1971 the balance of military power had definitely tilted towards in favour of India.
  • It had a stronger economy and larger population than Pakistan and was able to develop an army considerably larger than Pakistan could put in the field.
  • India could also rely on support from the soviet Union after signing the treaty of Peace, friendship and Commerce in August 1971.
  • When civil war broke out in East Pakistan and it declared independence, the Indian recognised and opportunity to take advantage of its rival difficulties.
  • The Indian army attacked East Pakistan.
  • The ensuring war lead to the downfall of Dacca and the subsequent surrender of the Pakistani forces with a large number of Pakistani soldiers being taken prisoner by India.
  • Pakistan’s humiliating defeat led to the replacement of Yaha Khan with Bhutto as president of Pakistan.
  • In early 1972 Bhutto met with India Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India, to conclude a peace treaty.
  • As Indian was holding 90,000 Pakistani soldiers prisoner, Bhutto was in a weak bargaining position.
  • According to the Simla agreement, in return of the release of the prisoners, Bhutto had to agree that in the future talks over Kashmir should be between India and Pakistan.
  • Before this, Pakistan had seen it as an international issue and had enlisted the help of the UN when India tried to seize parts of Kashmir ( as in 1954 and 1955).

Relations b/w India & Pakistan After 1971.

  • In 1947 India tested its first nuclear weapons near Rajasthan.
  • This caused great alarm amongst Pakistan leadership.
  • Pakistan had not been able to defeat India in two wars and now the Indian were developing nuclear weapons Bhutto announced that Pakistan too, must develop nuclear capability.
  • He said they would have to do so as quickly as possible.
  • India had clear military advantage than Pakistan.
  • Nuclear weapons were considered so important that Bhutto claimed that their development must continue even if people of Pakistan “had to eat grass”.
  • Relations between India and Pakistan continued to be strained during the 1970s, but when Zia came to power in 1977 there was an improvement.
  • He began receiving aid from USA to oppose Soviet Union policy in Afghanistan.
  • Consequently, although the Kashmir issue remained important, but Zia main focus was on supporting Afghani’s.
  • This enable more peaceful relations between India and Pakistan.
  • In the early 1980’s the Indians facing uprising by the Sikh community in the Punjab, who were demanding separate homeland.
  • India accused Pakistan of providing arms and training for the Sikh insurgents, but never able to substantiate these accusations.
  • Mrs. Gandhi Son, Rajiv, took over as Prime Minister.
  • He openly accused Pakistan of having a role in Sikh separatist movement and therefore, indirectly, in the assassination of his mother.
  • I will feeling rose, despite Zia declaring a day of national mourning of Mrs. Gandhi in Pakistan.
  • By 1987 relations had deteriorated to the point where the two countries were close to war.
  • In the late January Indian army began exercises in the Rajisthan desert.
  • These were designed to intimidate the Pakistanis.
  • Then in a brilliant political masterstroke, Zia flew to India, supposedly to watch a cricket match in Jaipur, Including Rajiv Gandhi, and managed to cool the situation down.
  • The exercises was called off.
  • Wars had been avoided ,but there were still many problems.
  • The situation in Kashmir war far from resolved and both sides continued to develop nuclear and conventional weapons in cases of future warfare.
  • In 1976 Pakistan founded the Engineering Research Laboratories in Kahutta, near Islamabad.
  • This plant was able to enrich Uranium, a significant step in developing nuclear technology.
  • In 1972 Pakistan had opened the Karachi Nuclear power plant (KANUPP).
  • Just two years later, India carried out a controlled Nuclear explosion.
  • This forced to Pakistan to take note that, If necessary, India could use nuclear weapons against Pakistan.
  • In 1980 the Americans put pressure on Pakistan to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treat.
  • This treaty had come into being in July with the aim of preventing the spread of Nuclear weapons and trying to end the nuclear arms race.
  • It had an original 62 signatories(which had risen to 163 by 1994).
  • However, neither India nor Pakistan had the signed the treaty.
  • India considers the treaty to be discriminatory against non Western countries.
  • However Pakistan policy was clear, it will sign when India does.
  • So fear of each others nuclear weapons continued to sour Indo-Pakistan relations.
  • India continued to look for ways to try to stop Pakistan continuing its policy of nuclear development.
  • In 1984 The New York Times carried an article claiming that Indra Gandhi had been advised by Indian Politicians to attack Pakistan’s nuclear facilities, but had turned down the recommendation.
  • Her son, Rajiv visited Pakistan in 1989 during Benazir Bhutto government in an attempt to improve relations.
  • However two very serious issue prevented the easing of tension, nuclear development and Kashmir.

Nuclear Issue b/w INDIA & PAKISTAN

  • Benzair Bhutto offered for a free nuclear subcontinent.
  • Gandhi did not take this serious.
  • By May 1998 India was carrying out tests which proved that it had nuclear weapons.
  • Two weeks later, on 28 May 1998 Pakistan also conducted six successful nuclear explosion and showed that it too had also nuclear weapons.
  • There was outcry internationally about these testes.
  • Both countries argued that they needed for self defense.
  • The United Nations passed a unanimous resolution asking both countries to end their nuclear weapons programmes.
  • Secretary General Kofi Annan asked both countries to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
  • Pakistan asked it would if India also agreed.
  • India did not.
  • However, In June 1998 Pakistan announced that it was stopping Nuclear testing.
  • India also made Similar announcement.


  • The agreement to end nuclear testing was an attempt to reduce tensions between India and Pakistan.
  • Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and Vajpayee met in February 1999 near the border crossing at Wagah and issued the Lahore Declaration in which they agreed to take serious measures to improve ties.
  • But these could not succeeded due to Kashmir tension.
  • Pakistan was angered by India’s refusal to hold the referendum by the UN in 1948 and India was also angered by Pakistan consistently support for Muslim Kashmiris who were fighting against occupying Indian forces.
  • In April 1999 Muslim Kashmiris guerrillas crossed the Line of control(the unofficial border between free Kashmir and Indian-occupied Kashmir) and captured the India occupied towns of Kargil and Dras.
  • Pakistan denied any involvement.
  • In May India launched a counter attack during which which it fired over 250,000 shells and rockets.
  • Two of its aircrafts crossed Pakistani air space and one was shot down.
  • The international community was horrified that so soon after the Lahore Declaration, two countries with nuclear weapons had gone to war.
  • During May and June 1999 Pakistani forces were pushed back and eventually Sharif was persuaded by Us President Clinton to withdraw all Pakistan forces from the Indian-held territory behind the Line of control.
  • The Kargil conflict was major to Pakistan Indian Relations.
  • It even proved more damaging to Nawaz government.
  • It was a mistake to launch the attack after Lahore Declaration.
  • Neither of these things were true.
  • India claimed to have killed 4000-6000 Pakistani troops.
  • The increased unpopularity of the Sharif as a result of the Kargil Conflict was a major cause of his overthrown in October 1999.

  • This Lecture was made and prepared by Muhammad Fawad Khan.
  • This Lecture is helpful to Pak-Affair, International Relations and C/Affairs.
  • This is Lecture first and i will update this lecture with the passage of time.
  • share with others to help them.

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