By the middle of the eighteenth century, Mughal power was no longer a reality and Muslims were facing a serious challenge to their survival as a political and religious community in the subcontinent. At such a time, Muslims turned to the path of inner renewal of their faith to survive. In this context, Shah Waliullah, Syed Ahmad Saheed Bareilvi, and Haji Shariatullah have left a lasting legacy culminating in the movement for a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. An important Muslim religious leader, Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Mujadadid Alf-i-Sani, who who was a contemporary of the Mughal Emperors Akbar The Great and Jahangir. The teaching of Sheikh Ahmad show the rise of religious thought among the Muslims of the subcontinent and how they viewed the changes in belief brought about the rulers like Akbar The Great .(https://eastwestknowledge.com/shah-waliullah/)
MUJADDID ALF-I-SANI, 1564-1624
Akbar the Great deviation from mainstream Islam caused a reaction among the Ulema and the learned Sufis Saints of his time. The foremost among these was Khawaja Baki Billah, the Founder of the Naqashbandia order. His most gifted disciple was Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi, who came to be known as Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani (receiver of Islam). Sheikh Ahmad was born in Sirhind, the Mughal capital of Eastern Punjab.
In 1599 he came to Delhi and met Khawaja Baki Billah and, staying on, Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi joined the Naqshbandia order. He was gifted writer and used that ability to convey the message of reviving Islam and convincing Muslims to fulfil their duties towards their religion.
He addressed many letters to the nobles of Akbar’s reign. Among them were Sheikh Farid, Khan-i-Azam, Sadr-i-Jahan, Khan-i-Jahan, and Abdur Rahim, Khan-i-Khanan. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi letters left a deep impression on the people of his time, Aurangzeb Alamgir’s return to orthodox Islam can be traced to Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi efforts.
During Emperor Jahangir’s reign, Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi was called to the Mughal court for an explanation of his beliefs. According to the etiquette prescribed by Akbar the Great for anyone coming into royal presence, he had to bow in Sajda before Emperor Jahangir. He refused to bow before a human being as he said that the sajda was only for Allah. Emperor Jahangir imprisoned.In him in Gwalior jail for this disobedience, but he was released after a year.
For three years he stayed in Emperor Jahangir’s camp and the latter came to hold the Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi in great esteem. After the conquest of Kangra, he returned to Sirhind with the Emperor’s permission. He lived in seclusion there, doing charitable work and devoting himself to prayer till his death in December 1624. Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani in the revival of Islam can be compared to that of Shah Waliullah and Allama Iqbal in later times.(https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100508709)