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Sultan Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq had no offspring.He nominated his first cousin Feroz Shah Tughlaq as next successor in his life. Feroz Shah was a very simple man and a peace loving personality.He ruled for thirty seven years and was a popular ruler.He was considered good administrator.He continued the projects of that Muhammad Shah Tughlaq started in his tenure.There were persistent rebellions by the nobles and the army of slaves against Sultan Feroz Shah.After the death of Sultan,there were six sultans in next ten years.The Mongol ruler Amir Timur took this opportunity to enter into the Sultanate in 1398 and to destroy Delhi completely.
Return to Sindh.
Sultan Feroz Shah returned to Sindh with an army of 90,000 cavalry and a fleet of supply ships.He attacked the Town of Thatta, the capital of lower sindh. Not only his army failed to capture Thatta but also the supplied ran out.Horses of sultan Army began to die with disease.He had no choice but to retreat and moved towards Gujarat.He returned Delhi after 6 months.People thought sultan died.He got together a new army and marched back to Sindh. This time he destroyed the crops around Thatta and besieged the town again. People began to die with starving.Their leaders were forced to Surrender, finally they accepted the authority of the Sultan.
Reforms by Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
After ascend the throne, he paid special attention to correct the revenue system.He reestablished the complete revenue system which was acceptable to the farmers.He imposed new agriculture taxes.He also gave relaxation in loans of farmers.All the taxes like trade, cloth,grain,animals and selling of fish prohibited by Sultan.This action prominently reduced the Government revenue. Resultantly,farmers began to cultivate barren lands.
Judicial Reforms by Sultan:
He revoked the sentences of cutting hand,feet, nose, and to gouge out eyes.He appointed Qazis through out the country to provide Justice.Hindus were dealt according to their own religious laws.
Sultan Feroz allowed landlords and provincial Governors to have specific numbers of soldiers and also bear their expenses for food and training.Ranks in the army were made inheritage. With these reforms, standard of training and discipline of army fall.
He again started the feudal system.Noble men were made to join the affairs of the government and they were also allotted big piece of lands.This Feudal system brought crisis in the system which had been eliminated by Muhammad Shah Tughlaq.
Skill Development and literature.
Sultan played a vital role to promote skill and literature.Many books were written on history and literature during his reign. Zia-uddin Barni wrote a history of Feroz Shah at that time.When he conquered Nagarkot, he founded near about three thousands books in Sanskrit language.He ordered to translate these books in Persian Language.
Promotion of Agriculture.
He developed irrigation system to increase the production of agriculture. Four canals were dug on the special direction of sultan.Canals were dug to cultivate the lands of Depalpur and Multan areas.These canals made the barren lands useful for cultivation.He also planted planted thousands of gardens which produced fruit in abundant.He laid the foundation of new colonies and cities including Jaunpur,Fatehbad,Hisar,Feroza and Ferozpur. When Bengal was conquered ,Pando was named Ferozabad. He set up 36 new factories in the country in which cloth,arms, and other things of daily life use were prepared.New arms factories were made to fulfill the needs of the military.Sultan minted very fine and pure coins.He also introduced two new coins which were the compounds of two metals, copper and silver.
People were prosperous in his reign. He did several welfare works for public.Special Scholarships were awarded to widows,crippled and impoverished people.poor girls were married from”alam funds”.New jobs were created for the people. Unemployed person were given stipend.Literate people were offered services in factories.Many health centers were made where patients treated free of cost.
Sultan loved with Architecture.
It is reported that Sultan built 200 towns,forty mosques, a hundred hospitals,a hundred public baths and 150 bridges as well as series for travelers (a serai was a hotel on a main travel route).He also built many irrigation schemes and constructed fifty dams and reservoirs so that more land could be used for agriculture. He established more than a thousand schools and colleges. Many scholars,artists,architecture and craftsmen from any areas came to the court of Delhi which became a center of learning in the 14th century.He built places,inns,bridges,minarets,tanks and also dug wells.He settled new cities like Ferozabad,Jaunpur and Fatehbad. He built the Tomb of Jalaluddin Khilji. He ordered to repair the mausoleum of Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia(R.A).
Death of Sultan
He died in 1388.He was buried at Ferozabad.