In Pakistan many languages are spoken, but the URDU Language is national language of Pakistan. Urdu Language is relatively new language and over time Muslims in the subcontinent have spoken a wide variety of languages.


Language is very important par of our life. Through communication a native language becomes the social inheritance of all speakers. Language belongs to each one of us. Everybody uses words to communicate. Because we all speak and listen to it, the language we use helps to identify us and makes us feel connected to people whose language we share. In the same way, it separates us from people who speak a different language. Language is often political and controversial.

Language is extremely very important in the development of any state or national culture. The acceptance of one single language as the national language helps bring about uniformity and a culture identity by binding a people together. A common language increase understanding and helps build build a shared understanding of what a nation believes in.


Ever since Islam came to the subcontinent there have been many different languages used. As any group came to the rule the subcontinent, they brought with them their own language, such as Arabic or Turkish. Effective rulers appreciated the need to foster an understanding of arts and literature and so it is not surprising that these new languages took root and spread.

The language which perhaps had the greatest impact was Persian. During the Mughal period it was the official language in the court of Delhi. Most books were written in Persian and it was adopted by poets and scholars, such as Amir Khusrau. Shah Waliullah translated the Quran from Arabic into Persian so that it was accessible to more people. Many Sanskrit books were also translated in Persian. The language was also used for day to day communication and became so widespread that even Hindus began to use it.

By the end of rule by the Mughal Emperors. Urdu language was the most used language in the Muslim dominated north-western Provinces. The languages emerged over a thousand years ago. Urdu is a Tartar world for military camp; in Turkish it is ordo. The Urdu Language was a result of Turkish, Persian and Hindu soldiers, and local people mixing together in their camps.

Words from all three language, though mostly Hindi, together with some Arabic and local Prakrit, all went into Urdu. The grammar was mainly based on Hindi. At first it was just a spoken language used in the everyday life by soldiers and local people, but educated Muslims and even Hindus still continued to use Persian, especially in formal usage.

Urdu is written in the Nastaliq script, like Persian, whereas Hindi is written in the Devanagri scripts, which Muslims had to learn decipher. Shah Waliullah wrote in Persian but his sons translated the Holy Quran into Urdu language. Later poets and writers used Urdu Language as a literary and formal language. After it became the official language of the Mughal Empire, after Aurangzeb, all the official documents were in Urdu Language.


In 1867 some leading Hindus started a campaign to replace Urdu with their language Hindi. Their complaint was that Urdu language was written in Persian Script which was similar to Arabic script, and that Arabic was the language of the Quran. Moreover, the script was identified with the Muslims who had invaded and ruled India for several centuries. The Hindi campaign rapidly gained strength.

Muslims leapt to the defence of their language. For both Muslims and Hindus the disagreement over languages was very important. Muslims saw the attack on Urdu Language as a threat to their culture and rights. It was a clash over which group was to be the most important and powerful in India. After 1857 War of Independence the Muslims already felt they were being treated badly. The attack on their language seemed to prove that Hindus wanted to control and perhaps even destroy Muslim traditions and their way of life. Hindus felt that for too long the Muslims had too much power and privilege’s.

Sir syed Ahmad Khan actively defended Urdu. He set up a society for Urdu, to encourage the use of simple, clear, and functional language, doing away with the ornate idiom of the past. He wanted good relations between Muslims and Hindus. This would be impossible if the Hindus succeeded in their attack on Urdu.

In 1900 the United Provinces Government declared that Hindi and Urdu were to be treated equally. There to be two official languages and everyone who worked for the government had to be fluent in both.


Urdu Language was important to many leading Muslims. In the 1930 the Muslim League discussed making Urdu their Official language. Muslims in Bengal were firmly opposed: they referred to retain their own language, Bengali, which also used a form of the Devanagri Script. However, in 1937, the Muslim League agreed to make all efforts possible to make Urdu their official Language. In 1947 Quaid-e-Azam made the decision that Urdu should be the official language of Pakistan.

Anyone who tries to mislead you is really the enemy of Pakistan. Without state Language, no nation can remain tied up solidly together and function

Quaid-e-Azam, quoted in Khalid Bin Sayeed, Pakistan

It is necessary for a nation to have one language and that language can only be Urdu Language and no other language.

Liaquat Ali Khan, Prime Minister of Pakistan Speaking in 1948

The aim of adopting a single language was to promote a national Language was to promote a national Pakistani identity. But it is difficult to impose a new language on people, however good the reason might be. Muslims in Bengal who, from 1947-71, comprised the majority of Pakistan’s population. In a left over from the days of British rule, English remained the language used for official business. Although the constitution of Pakistan envisages Urdu replacing English, in reality the use of English continues in official and commercial correspondence. Globalization means that it is difficult to get away from English. English has to be used in dealing with many international companies and foreign governments.

Urdu language has become the established language of education in state schools, but even so local languages are used in some areas. Well-off parents send their children to schools where the medium of Instruction is English. Language affects people’s opportunities. For those Pakistanis who wish to get good jobs in government, business or the media, fluency in written and spoken English and Urdu Language is essential. Most Television and radio programmes and films, and many newspapers, magazines, and books are produced in Urdu, as well as some in the main regional languages. The opening up of new television Channels has provided an opportunity for the growth of regional languages.

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